A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules – Introduction
This is a valuable text by A. N. Cockcroft & J. N. F. Lameijer giving a sound knowledge of Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea – “Always considered to be essential for navigating officers.” Collision Avoidance Rules

Page 22  – Responsibility Rule 22.40 – special circumstances which would include the effects of the shallow water in proximity to Browns Light & reef.

Page 40 – Duty for watchman to keep a check on the course being steered.
An improvement possible for trainee watchman Phillip Sweetman

P 47 – Even the most efficient equipment cannot be regarded as a complete substitute for the human eye, visual bearings taken by compass etc.
Bolton’s Line of Sight method for determining risk of collision

P 55 – The VHF radio may be used to advantage in certain circumstances for the purpose of clarifying a situation involving 2 vessels & indicating intentions.
M Pigneguy had no intention of using his VHF to notify Classique

P 61 & 62 – Bearings taken relative to the ship’s structure can be very misleading in determining whether risk of collision exists. The relative bearing will be affected by changes of heading. Such bearings must always be related to the ship’s heading. M Pigneguy failed to check that his course was steady.

P 63 – An illustration of 2 vessels involved in an Admiralty case where they would have passed clear starboard to starboard if one had not made a number of small alterations to starboard in similar fashion to those of Seaway.

P 117 – Another example of the Admiralty holding that the Crossing Rule did not apply as the stand-on vessel had been constantly changing her course.

P 119 – The requirement to avoid crossing ahead does not apply in a crossing situation in which there is no risk of collision – or at long ranges before risk of collision begins to apply.  Classique & Seaway were 2.8 nmiles apart initially.

P 122 – A vessel which is required to keep her course & speed does not necessarily have to remain on the same compass course & same engine revolutions. Keeping “course & speed” means course & speed in following the nautical maneuver in which to the knowledge of the other vessel, the vessel is at the time engaged. The “course” certainly does not mean the actual compass direction of the heading of the vessel at the time the other is sighted. This applies to Seaway being on a regular run of which Bolton on Classque is aware where Seaway would normally turn to port for Auckland after Browns Light area

P 124 & 125 – Vessel  in doubt to signal immediately as prescribed in Rule 22.34
There’s no mention of  M Pigneguy’s camera being an acceptable substitute !
That’s halfway through this interpretive text by  Cockcroft & Lameijer

“A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules”
Always considered to be essential for navigating officers
Can be seen here – 
Collision Avoidance Rules

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