Cockcroft & Lameijer – A Guide to Collision Avoidance Rules
Looking through the 2nd half of this authoritative text.
Page 127 – When vessels are in sight of one another a vessel which alters course to port or starboard, or operates astern propulsion, is required to indicate the maneuver by the whistles prescribed in Rule 22.34.a – in order to reduce the possibility of the other taking conflicting action.
M Pigneguy failed to signal either his turning to starboard or astern propulsion.
P 148 – Seaway was quite entitled to turn to port as long as M Pigneguy made his turn early & bold enough especially as it was in the direction his Regular Run It was spurious to claim he was a stand-on vessel not allowed to turn port.
P 184 – Sound signals, frequencies & audibility.
Specifications are given in appendix 3. Frequencies are related to the length of the vessel to ensure a wide variety of characteristics. Vessels of less than 75 mtrs are required to have a whistle frequency of between 250 & 700Hz giving a relatively shrill tone, audible at 1 nmile in the wheel house above ambient noise. M Pigneguy was using a non complying handheld aerosol hooter.
P 186 & 187 – Maneuvering & warning signals
1 short blast – I’m altering course to starboard
2 short blasts – I’m altering my course to port
3 short blasts – I’m operating astern propulsion
When vessels in sight of each other are approaching each other & from any cause either vessel fails to understand the intentions or actions of the other, or is in any doubt whether sufficient action is being taken by the other to avoid collision, the vessel in doubt shall IMMEDIATELY indicate such doubt by giving at least 5 short & rapid blasts. M Pigneguy failed to sound any signal at the appropriate time – in fact he didn’t have a whistle to use but concentrated on his photography. If he did apply astern propulsion he didn’t signal that either.
P 223 – Watch keeping – should make regular checks to ensure the helmsman is steering the correct course. Phillip Sweetman failed to check the course Seaway was purported to be on – he also failed to notice that Seaway was not keeping her earlier courses but steering towards the path of Classique which he was assiduously following through binoculars at M Pigneguy’s behest.
P 229 – Reference to Bolton’s Line of sight method – A vessel taking action which would cause the line of sight to rotate in an anti-clockwise direction ie cause the compass bearing to decrease. An action causing the line of sight to rotate in a clock-wise direction would cause the compass bearing to increase.
The rate of change is indicating the amount of clearance to eventuate.
A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules – A. N. Cockcroft & J. N. F. Lameijer
Can be seen by clicking here – Collision Avoidance Rules